XML Print


1- School of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
2- School of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.
3- Yung Researchers and Elite Club, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran.
Abstract:   (26 Views)
Background: The aim of this research was to compare mindfulness, psychological capital, and self-compassion between students with externalizing problems and normal students in Isfahan city, Iran.
Methods: The statistical population of this case-control study included all the students with externalizing problems and normal students in Isfahan city in the academic year of 2017 - 2018. We used purposive non-probability sampling to collect the samples. In this regard, 100 students with externalizing problems and 100 normal students were selected and asked to complete questionnaires.  The questionnaires used in this study included Mindfulness Skills questionnaires, Self-compassion questionnaire, and PSY CAP questionnaires. The data were analyzed by SPSS23 using analysis of variance.
Results: The results showed that the mindfulness, PSY CAP, and
self-compassion were significantly different between the two groups (P-value < 0.0001). The students with externalizing problems had lower scores in mindfulness, PSY CAP, and self-compassion than the normal students.
Conclusion: Students with externalizing behavior problems had lower mental health due to their vulnerable cognitive and psychological processes. Accordingly, mindfulness, PSY CAP, and self-compassion scores were significantly different between the normal students and those with externalizing problems. Considering this difference, we suggest the authorities to pay enough attention to such varieties and conduct appropriate interventions accordingly.
 
Full-Text [PDF 1079 kb]   (4 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (2 Views)  
Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: Psychology
Received: 2018/03/27 | Accepted: 2018/12/4

References
1. 1. Gimpel GA, Holland ML. Emotional and behavioral problem of young children: Effective intervention in the preschool and kindergarten years. New York: Guildford. 2002.
2. Farmer RF, Gau JM, Seeley JR, Kosty DB, Sher KJ, Lewinsohn PM. Internalizing and externalizing disorders as predictors of alcohol use disorder onset during three developmental periods. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2016;164:38-46. [DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.04.021] [PMID] [PMCID]
3. Gump BB, Dykas MJ, MacKenzie JA, et al. Background lead and mercury exposures: Psychological and behavioral problems in children. Environmental Research. 2017;158: 576-582. [DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2017.06.033] [PMID] [PMCID]
4. Landers AL, Bellamy JL, Danes SM, Hawk SW. Internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems of American Indian children in the child welfare system. Children and Youth Services Review. 2017;81:413-21. [DOI:10.1016/j.childyouth.2017.08.014]
5. Listug Lunde L, Bredemeier K, Tynan WD. Concurrent parent and child group outcomes for child externalizing disorders: Generalizability to typical clinical settings. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy. 2005;1(2):124-130. [DOI:10.1037/h0100740]
6. Di LG, Iselin AR, Lansford JE, et al. Parents' and early adolescents' self-efficacy about anger regulation and early adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems: A longitudinal study in three countries. Journal of Adolescence. 2018;64:124-135. [DOI:10.1016/j.adolescence.2018.01.009] [PMID]
7. Hoseini YS, Mashhadi A, Kimiaee SA, Asemi Z. Effectiveness of children of divorce intervention program (CODIP) on externalized and internalized problems in children of divorce. Family Psychology. 2015;2(1):3-14. [Persian]
8. Hicks BM, South SC, DiRago AC, Iacono WG, McGue M. Environmental adversity and increasing genetic risk for externalizing disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2009;66(6):640-648. [DOI:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2008.554] [PMID] [PMCID]
9. Battagliese G, Caccetta M, Luppino OI, et al. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for externalizing disorders: A meta-analysis of treatment effectiveness. Behavior Research and Therapy. 2015;75:60-71. [DOI:10.1016/j.brat.2015.10.008] [PMID]
10. Nadaf S, Heydari E. The study of the relationship between mindfulness and aggression in 9th grade high school students in Ahvaz, Iran. at: First International Comprehensive Conference on Psychology, Education Sciences and Social Sciences. Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Branch, Ahvaz; 2016 Feb 17; Iran, Ahvaz. Civilica; 2016. [Persian]
11. Kabat Zinn J. Mindfulness‐based interventions in context: past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. 2003;10(2):144-156. [DOI:10.1093/clipsy.bpg016]
12. Hashemi Nosrat Abad T, Rastegar Faraj Zadeh L, Khanjani Z, Mashinchi Abbasi N. Effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction method on continuity of care behaviors in mothers of chronic diseases. Quarterly Journal of Advanced Psychological Research. 2016; 10(38): 187-201. [Persian]
13. Neff K. Self-compassion: An alternative conceptualization of a healthy attitude toward oneself. Self and Identity. 2003;2(2):85-101. [DOI:10.1080/15298860309032]
14. Neff KD. The role of self-compassion in development: A healthier way to relate to oneself. Human Development. 2009;52(4):211-214. [DOI:10.1159/000215071] [PMID] [PMCID]
15. Park JJ, Long P, Choe NH, Schallert DL. The contribution of self-compassion and compassion to others to students' emotions and project commitment when experiencing conflict in group projects. International Journal of Educational Research. 2018;88:20-30. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijer.2018.01.009]
16. Nolen Hoeksema S. The role of rumination in depressive disorders and mixed anxiety/depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 2000;109(3):504-511. [DOI:10.1037/0021-843X.109.3.504] [PMID]
17. Golparvar M, Mosahebi Mr. Predicting senile people's spiritual well being through psychological capital components. Knowledge & Research in Applied Psychology. 2015;16(3):4-12. [Persian]
18. Avey JB, Luthans F, Smith RM, Palmer NF. Impact of positive psychological capital on employee well-being over time. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. 2010;15(1):17-28. [DOI:10.1037/a0016998] [PMID]
19. Delavari A. Research methods in psychology and educational sciences. Tehran: Virayesh Publishing; 2000. [Persian] [PMCID]
20. Baer RA, Smith GT, Allen KB. Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: The Kentucky inventory of mindfulness skills. Assessment. 2004;11(3):191-206. [DOI:10.1177/1073191104268029] [PMID]
21. Brown KW, Ryan RM. The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2003;84(4):822-848. Buchheld N, Grossman P, Walach H. Measuring mindfulness in insight meditation (Vipassana) and meditation based psychotherapy: The development of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI). Journal for Meditation and Meditation Research. 2001;1(1):11-34.
22. Feldman GC, Hayes AM, Kumar SM, Greeson JM, Laurenceau JP. Mindfulness and emotion regulation: The development and initial validation of the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised (CAMS-R). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment.2007;29(3):177. [DOI:10.1007/s10862-006-9035-8]
23. Chadwick P, Hember M, Mead S, Lilley B, Dagnan D. Responding mindfully to unpleasant thoughts and images: Reliability and validity of the Mindfulness Questionnaire. Assessment. 2005;11:206-216.
24. Dehghan Manshadi Z, Taghavi MR, Manshadi Marich Dehghan. Psychometric characteristics of the Kentucky inventory of mindfulness skills. Journal of Clinical Psychology Andishe Va Raftar. 2012;7(25); 27-36. [Persian]
25. Shahbazi M, Rajabi Gh, Maghami E, Jelodari A. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Persian version of the self-compassion rating scale-revised. Journal of Psychological Models and Methods. 2015;6 (19): 31-46.
26. Forohar M, Hovida R, Jamshidian R. Psychological Capital and Entrepreneurship among Faculty Members. Counseling Culture and Psychotherapy. 2012;2 (8): 83-100. [Persian]
27. Farokhi E, Sabzi Neda. Happiness and perception of family communication patterns: The Mediating role of psychological capital. Developmental Psychology (Journal of Iranian Psychologists). 2015;11 (43):313-323. [Persian]
28. Ghezelsefloo M, Jazayeri R, Bahrami F, Mohammadi R. relationship between original family health and self-compassion with marital commitment. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. 2016;26(139):137-148. [Persian]
29. Baker LR, McNulty JK. Self-compassion and relationship maintenance: The moderating roles of conscientiousness and gender. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2011;100(5): 853-873 [DOI:10.1037/a0021884] [PMID] [PMCID]
30. Neff KD, Rude SS, Kirkpatrick KL. An examination of self-compassion in relation to positive psychological functioning and personality traits. Journal of Research in Personality. 2007;41(4):908-916. [DOI:10.1016/j.jrp.2006.08.002]
31. Neff KD, Hsieh YP, Dejitterat K. Self-compassion, achievement goals, and coping with academic failure. Self and Identity. 2005 Jul 1;4(3):263-287. [DOI:10.1080/13576500444000317]
32. Dousti M, Pourmohamadreza Tajrishi M, Ghobari Bonab. The effectiveness of resilience training on psychological well-being of female street children with externalizing disorders. Developmental Psychology (Journal of Iranian Psychologists). 2014;11(41):43-54. [Persian]
33. Ahmadvand Z, Heydarinasab L, Shairi Mr. Prediction of psychological well-being based on the components of mindfulness. Quarterly Journal of Health Psychology. 2012;1(2):60-69.
34. Keng SL, Smoski MJ, Robins CJ. Effects of mindfulness on psychological health: A review of empirical studies. Clinical Psychology Review. 2011 Aug 1;31(6):1041-1056. [DOI:10.1016/j.cpr.2011.04.006] [PMID] [PMCID]
35. Dabbaghi P, Asgharnejad Farida A, Atef Vahidb M K, Bolharic J. Effectiveness of group cognitive therapy based on mindfulness and spiritual schema activation in the prevention of opioid abuse relapse. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry & Clinical Psychology (IJPCP). 2008; 13(4):366-375. [Persian]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA code

Send email to the article author


© 2018 All Rights Reserved | Social Behavior Research & Health

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb