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Bashirian S, Barati M, Afshari M, Mirmoini S S, Zavar Chahar Tagh J. Identifying Concern and Stress of Parents, Students and Teachers with the Social Distance Planning Process and Reopening of Schools during Covid-19 Pandemic: A Qualitative Study. JSBCH. 2022; 6 (1) :853-863
URL: http://sbrh.ssu.ac.ir/article-1-188-en.html
1- Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.
2- Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran , afshari_m20@yahoo.com
3- Occupational Health, Health Center of Tuiserkan, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
4- Public Health, Health Center of Tuiserkan, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.
Abstract:   (147 Views)
Background: With the closure of schools as a result of the social distancing plan, the negative emotions that individuals experience became complicated. Therefore, the present study provided a deep understanding of the concerns and stresses of parents, students, and teachers about the process of social distance planning and reopening of schools during COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods: This directed qualitative content analysis was conducted in 2020. The data for this study were collected through semi-structured interviews with teachers (n=28), students (n=20), and their parents (n=32) in Tuiserkan County. Sampling was performed by purposeful sampling method with the maximum variation. Data analysis was performed simultaneously with data, collected by content analysis method.
Results: In general, 90% of participants were stressed and concerned about the social distancing plan and the reopening of schools during Covid-19 pandemic. During data analysis, 74 primary codes, 13 sub-themes and 4 themes were obtained. The themes included predisposing factors (knowledge and attitude), reinforcing factors, enabling factors, and quality of life.
Conclusion: Identifying and explaining the concerns and stress of parents, students and teachers about the process of social distance planning and reopening of schools during infectious diseases such as COVID-19 pandemic will help policy-makers and administrators for planning and interventions related to this.
Background: With the closure of schools as a result of the social distancing plan, the negative emotions that individuals experience became complicated. Therefore, the present study provided a deep understanding of the concerns and stresses of parents, students, and teachers about the process of social distance planning and reopening of schools during COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods: This directed qualitative content analysis was conducted in 2020. The data for this study were collected through semi-structured interviews with teachers (n=28), students (n=20), and their parents (n=32) in Tuiserkan County. Sampling was performed by purposeful sampling method with the maximum variation. Data analysis was performed simultaneously with data, collected by content analysis method.
Results: In general, 90% of participants were stressed and concerned about the social distancing plan and the reopening of schools during Covid-19 pandemic. During data analysis, 74 primary codes, 13 sub-themes and 4 themes were obtained. The themes included predisposing factors (knowledge and attitude), reinforcing factors, enabling factors, and quality of life.
Conclusion: Identifying and explaining the concerns and stress of parents, students and teachers about the process of social distance planning and reopening of schools during infectious diseases such as COVID-19 pandemic will help policy-makers and administrators for planning and interventions related to this.
 
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Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: Mental Health
Received: 2022/04/7 | Accepted: 2022/05/30 | Published: 2022/06/1

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23. Rahmatinejad, P., Yazdi, M., Khosravi, Z., & Shahisadrabadi, F. (2020). Lived Experience of Patients with Coronavirus (Covid-19): A Phenomenological Study. RPH, 14 (1):70-90.
24. Rubin, G.J., Amlot, R., Page, L., & Wessely, S. (2009). Public perceptions, anxiety, and behaviour change in relation to the swine flu outbreak: cross sectional telephone survey. BMJ, 339: b2651. [DOI:10.1136/bmj.b2651] [PMID] [PMCID]
25. Rubin, G.J., & Wessely, S. (2020). The psychological effects of quarantining a city. BMJ, 368. [DOI:10.1136/bmj.m313] [PMID]
26. Seeger, M.W., Pechta, L.E., Price, S.M., Lubell, K.M., Rose, D.A., Sapru, S., & et al. (2018). A Conceptual Model for Evaluating Emergency Risk Communication in Public Health. Health security, 16(3):193-203. [DOI:10.1089/hs.2018.0020] [PMID]
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28. Van Bortel, T., Basnayake, A., Wurie, F., Jambai, M., Koroma, A.S., Muana, A.T, & et al. (2016). Psychosocial effects of an Ebola outbreak at individual, community and international levels. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 94(3):210. [DOI:10.2471/BLT.15.158543] [PMID] [PMCID]
29. Xiang, Y.T., Yang, Y., Li, W., Zhang, L., Zhang, Q., Cheung, T., & et al. (2020). Timely mental health care for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak is urgently needed. The Lancet Psychiatry, 7(3):228-9. [DOI:10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30046-8]
30. Yaribeygi, H., Panahi, Y., Sahraei, H., Johnston, T.P., & Sahebkar, A. (2017). The impact of stress on body function: A review. Excli Journal, 16: 1057-72.
31. Zhang, J., Shuai, L., Yu, H., Wang, Z., Qiu, M., Lu, L., & et al. (2020). Acute stress, behavioural symptoms and mood states among school-age children with attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder during the COVID-19 outbreak. Asian journal of psychiatry, 51:102077. [DOI:10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102077] [PMID] [PMCID]
32. Ahmadi Abhari, S.A. (1996). The Role of Faith and Religious Beliefs in Healing Physical and Emotional Disorders. IJPCP, 2(4):1-8.
33. Banerjee, D. (2020). The COVID-19 Outbreak: Crucial Role the Psychiatrists Can Play. Asian J Psychiatr, 50: 102014. [DOI:10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102014] [PMID] [PMCID]
34. Bao, Y., Sun, Y., Meng, S,, Shi, J., & Lu, L. (2020). 2019-nCoV epidemic: address mental health care to empower society. The Lancet, 395(10224):e37-e8. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30309-3]
35. Barrett, K.E., Barman, S.M., Brooks, H.L., & Yuan, J. (2019). Ganong's Review of Medical Physiology. 26th Editon. McGraw-Hill Education.
36. Chen. N., Zhou, M., Dong, X., Qu, J., Gong, F., Han, Y., & et al. (2020). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. The Lancet, 395(10223):507-13. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7]
37. Dar, K.A., Iqbal, N., & Mushtaq, A. (2017). Intolerance of uncertainty, depression, and anxiety: Examining the indirect and moderating effects of worry. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 29:129-33. [DOI:10.1016/j.ajp.2017.04.017] [PMID]
38. Hawryluck, L., Gold, W.L., Robinson, S., Pogorski, S., Galea, S., & Styra, R. (2004). SARS control and psychological effects of quarantine, Toronto, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10 (7):1206. [DOI:10.3201/eid1007.030703] [PMID] [PMCID]
39. Hall, R.C., Hall, R.C., & Chapman, M.J. (2008). The 1995 Kikwit Ebola outbreak: lessons hospitals and physicians can apply to future viral epidemics. General hospital psychiatry, 30(5):446-52. [DOI:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2008.05.003] [PMID] [PMCID]
40. Horton, R. (2020). Offline: 2019-nCoV-"A desperate plea". The Lancet, 395(10222):400. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30299-3]
41. Huang, C., Wang, Y., Li, X., Ren, L., Zhao, J., Hu, Y., & et al. (2020). Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The lancet, 395(10223):497-506. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5]
42. Gentili, D., Bardin, A., Ros, E., Piovesan, C., Ramigni, M., Dalmanzio, M., & et al. (2020). Impact of Communication Measures Implemented During a School Tuberculosis Outbreak on Risk Perception among Parents and School Staff, Italy, 2019. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(3): 911. [DOI:10.3390/ijerph17030911] [PMID] [PMCID]
43. Ghasemi, M., Keshtegar, A., & Mohammadzadeh, Z. (2020). Good Governance and Public Value Management in the Face of COVID-19. Manage Strat Health Syst, 5(1):3-6. [DOI:10.18502/mshsj.v5i1.3271]
44. Graneheim, U.H., & Lundman, B. (2004). Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse Educ Today, 24(2):105-12. [DOI:10.1016/j.nedt.2003.10.001] [PMID]
45. Guba, E.G., & Lincoln, Y.S. (1994). Competing paradigms in qualitative research. Handbook of Qualitative Research, 2(163-194):105.
46. Lee, J. (2020). Mental health effects of school closures during COVID-19. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, 4(6):42. [DOI:10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30109-7]
47. Lu, R., Zhao, X., Li, J., Niu, P., Yang, B., Wu, H., & et al. (2020). Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. The Lancet, 395(10224):565-74. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30251-8]
48. Mahase, E. (2020). China coronavirus: WHO declares international emergency as death toll exceeds 200. BMJ, 368:m408. [DOI:10.1136/bmj.m408] [PMID]
49. Nishiura, H., Jung, S.M., Linton, N.M., Kinoshita, R., Yang, Y., Hayashi, K., & et al. (2020). The extent of transmission of novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China, 2020. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 9(2):330. [DOI:10.3390/jcm9020330] [PMID] [PMCID]
50. Official website of the President of the Islamic Republic of Iran. (2020). Social Distancing Plan in Iran. Retrieved from http://www.president.ir.
51. Peng, P.W., Ho, P.L., & Hota, S.S. (2020). Outbreak of a new coronavirus: what anaesthetists should know. BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia, 124(5):497. [DOI:10.1016/j.bja.2020.02.008] [PMID] [PMCID]
52. Prem, K., Liu, Y., Russell, T., Kucharski, A., Egoo, R., Davis, N., & et al. (2020). The effect of control strategies to reduce social mixing on outcomes of the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan, China: a modelling study. Lancet Public Health, 5(5): E261-70. [DOI:10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30073-6]
53. Qazi, A., Qazi, J., Naseer, K., Zeeshan, M., Hardaker, G., Maitama, J.Z., & et al. (2020). Analyzing Situational Awareness through Public Opinion to Predict Adoption of Social Distancing Amid Pandemic COVID‐19. Journal of Medical Virology, 92(7):849-55. [DOI:10.1002/jmv.25840] [PMID] [PMCID]
54. Rahmatinejad, P., Yazdi, M., Khosravi, Z., & Shahisadrabadi, F. (2020). Lived Experience of Patients with Coronavirus (Covid-19): A Phenomenological Study. RPH, 14 (1):70-90.
55. Rubin, G.J., Amlot, R., Page, L., & Wessely, S. (2009). Public perceptions, anxiety, and behaviour change in relation to the swine flu outbreak: cross sectional telephone survey. BMJ, 339: b2651. [DOI:10.1136/bmj.b2651] [PMID] [PMCID]
56. Rubin, G.J., & Wessely, S. (2020). The psychological effects of quarantining a city. BMJ, 368. [DOI:10.1136/bmj.m313] [PMID]
57. Seeger, M.W., Pechta, L.E., Price, S.M., Lubell, K.M., Rose, D.A., Sapru, S., & et al. (2018). A Conceptual Model for Evaluating Emergency Risk Communication in Public Health. Health security, 16(3):193-203. [DOI:10.1089/hs.2018.0020] [PMID]
58. Sim, K., Chan, Y.H., Chong, P.N., Chua, H.C., & Soon, S.W. (2010). Psychosocial and coping responses within the community health care setting towards a national outbreak of an infectious disease. Journal of psychosomatic research, 68(2):195-202. [DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2009.04.004] [PMID] [PMCID]
59. Van Bortel, T., Basnayake, A., Wurie, F., Jambai, M., Koroma, A.S., Muana, A.T, & et al. (2016). Psychosocial effects of an Ebola outbreak at individual, community and international levels. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 94(3):210. [DOI:10.2471/BLT.15.158543] [PMID] [PMCID]
60. Xiang, Y.T., Yang, Y., Li, W., Zhang, L., Zhang, Q., Cheung, T., & et al. (2020). Timely mental health care for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak is urgently needed. The Lancet Psychiatry, 7(3):228-9. [DOI:10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30046-8]
61. Yaribeygi, H., Panahi, Y., Sahraei, H., Johnston, T.P., & Sahebkar, A. (2017). The impact of stress on body function: A review. Excli Journal, 16: 1057-72.
62. Zhang, J., Shuai, L., Yu, H., Wang, Z., Qiu, M., Lu, L., & et al. (2020). Acute stress, behavioural symptoms and mood states among school-age children with attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder during the COVID-19 outbreak. Asian journal of psychiatry, 51:102077. [DOI:10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102077] [PMID] [PMCID]

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